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[ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international

#34
I am in Leipzig for the time being visiting my girlfriend who lives there. I have only brought my laptop with me. I have access to my files and have R installed, however I don't have LATEX installed, so I cannot update the PDF file while I am here. I will get home on the 8th.

In the meanwhile, we can discuss problems with the paper. All quotes are from Dalliard.

Quote:So the criterion used was to extract just one factor. You should state that explicitly in the paper and justify the decision. At the limit, given that your variance explained is <50%, it is possible (though extremely unlikely) that there's a second factor that explains almost as much. In that case, denoting one of them as a general factor would be arbitrary. At the very least, you should tell how many factors with eigenvalues>1 there are.

I answered this partly before. I was only looking for a general socioeconomic factor and did not have any specific model in mind. No hypotheses were made about any non-general factors, nor was any specific model of the data advanced beforehand. This is why I did not use CFA either.

Quote:Still badly worded. Who are the 'they' referenced? Clark does not write about a "general socioeconomic factor." He writes about "social competence." Perhaps the Social Competence Factor would be a better label for your factor, given that some of its indicators are not usually thought of as indicating socioeconomic status.

I will remove the ”they”.

Quote:'Well-doing' is archaic-sounding and does not mean what you think it does:

well-doing (uncountable)
1.The practice of doing good; virtuousness, good conduct.

'Well-being' implies material prosperity, too, and is quite sufficient for your purposes:

well-being (uncountable)
1.a state of health, happiness and/or prosperity

Fine. I will use that then and drop the other.

Quote:If you are going to include an itemized description of SPI, you should tell more about DP, too.

If you think it is necessary. Note that whichever structure of the index the author decided on, I am not using it. I am only using their indicators. I showed the SPI just to show that there is some elaborate structure decided upon by the authors, which may not be supported by the actual intercorrelations in the data.

Quote:Most factor analyses will produce first factors that are substantially larger than the subsequent ones. What is the standard for "a very large" factor? The g factor is a general factor because all cognitive abilities do load positively on it.

More than a third of the loadings on the SPI factor are negative, so it's not a general factor. Similarly, if you had a cognitive test battery where some subtests loaded positively on the first unrotated factor and other subtests loaded negatively on it, there'd be no general factor, no matter how much variance the first factor explained.

Of course, in the case of the SPI factor the negative loadings are mostly an artefact of your failing to reverse code the negatively valenced variables. It's possible that this decision has some effect on all loadings.

Say, >30% I'd consider a large factor. I would not use the word ”fail” as that implies some attempt was made (which didn't succeed). No such attempt was made nor is it necessary IMO. The S factor is general in both datasets because: 1) it is very large (40-47% of var), 2) it is general in that almost all socially valued indicators load so that the desirability pole is towards the same end. I discuss the exceptions to this in a section in the paper too. Think about how the results could have looked like. Imagine a two factor result instead, with about half of the indicators loading on the one factor but not the other, each factor perhaps accounting for 20% of the variance. Clearly, this would be a most interesting result and clear disproof of any general country well-being. However, this is not what was found.

Quote:I cannot access that paper, but whatever bias the CC has is miniscule compared to the bias that Pearson's r can produce when it is used to compare factor loadings. Look at the example on p. 100 in The g Factor by Jensen. The CC is the standard method for comparing factor loadings in EFA, and you should use it.

I will report both in the paper. And in any case, the results were virtually identical.

Quote:State explicitly in the paper what you are doing. Computing correlations between factors can be done in many different ways (e.g., factor scores, congruence coefficient, CFA latent factor correlations).

I will update it to be more clear.

Quote:If you interpret a factor in a realist manner, as g is usually interpreted, then such studies are relevant, but your S factor seems completely artefactual.

'Completely artefactual'?

Quote:Ignore the replacement issue, with 1000 iterations you of course have to reuse the variables.

If you look in the code, you can see that it does exactly this for the subset x subset analyses:
1. Pick 10 random numbers between 1 and the number of variables without replacement (no overlap).
2. Divide that (unordered) list into two.
3. Get the first factor from each set of variables.
4. Correlate the scores from each first factor.
5. Save this result.
6. Repeat steps 1-5 1000 times.
7. Average the results.
8. Output the results.

In retrospect, I wrote the code in a dumb way that made it both slower (because using loops) and didn't save all the information generated only the final results.

Quote:OK, it's very linear. I'd include at least one of the scatter plots in the paper.

The other question refers to the fact that the variables with negative loadings may have an outsized influence on the MCV correlations because they somewhat artificially increase the range of values analyzed.


One could view the negative codings (not my doing) as inflating the variance which inflates the correlation. But one might as well argue that reverse coding them on purpose to produce only positive loadings is artificially decreasing the variance and thus lowering the correlations.

I ran the correlations again but with absolute values. The r drops a bit to around .95 which may be somewhat inflated. This is because any variable with a positive cor with IQ and negative loading (or reversely) would get 'fixed' to both positive so it would create a spuriously high correlation. I have attached the plot of the MCV on SPI with national IQ and absolute values. r=.95.

Quote:The MISTRA IQ correlation matrices have been published: http://www.newtreedesign2.com/isironline...RAData.pdf

I am aware. But it is not enough for my analyses. I need the scores too. I can repeat the loadings analyses but not the score x score ones.

Quote:I agree that the MCV results are perhaps of some interest.

It is well known that nations that are richer also have better health care, less malnutrition, higher life expectancy, better educational systems, better infrastructure, etc., so the S factor is unsurprising. The g factor is surprising because many assume that various domains of intelligence are strongly differentiated. Moreover, the realist interpretation of g does not rely just on the positive manifold, but on many completely independent lines of evidence (e.g., from multivariate behavioral genetics). So my criticisms are quite unlike Gould's.

What is this general socioeconomic factor? Why is it worth studying? Is it a formative or reflective factor?

Unsurprising, maybe, but no one has showed it to be there before. Remember that just because GDP (”richer”) correlates with variables X1, ..., Xn, does not show that these also intercorrelate strongly to create a large general factor.

The S factor provides a framework to think about national g proxies x other variables of interest. Right now whenever such a correlation is found, people usually attempt some specific theory of why this specific variable correlates with national g proxies (e.g. institutions, wealth, freedom of the press, atheism).

I don't know what you mean regarding formative vs. reflective factor. Perhaps you can link to some material that covers these concepts or explain them briefly.

If it concerns causality, I think S is primarily caused by G, but that there is some backwards causation in poorer countries due to nutrition (vitamin deficiency, protein deficiency), health care (certain illnesses may lower g) and perhaps pollution (e.g. heavy metal poisoning). Political structure also has an influence on S, especially totalitarian regimes of the communist variety seem to make things worse (China, North Korea, Cuba, Venezuela). However, as I said earlier, I don't want to push this or that interpretation in the paper as this would 1) make it much longer, 2) make it take forever to get thru peer review. I think such discussion is better left for another paper (or a book).

Quote:There are all kinds of stuff in your supplemental materials, but if someone wants to replicate or extend your analysis, correlation matrices are what they need. Although I think it's unfortunate that you have not reversed the scoring of the negative variables.


Well, since I published all the data files, they can easily generate the correlation matrices if they want those. They are not optimal because one cannot do score x score analyses with them. I don't see any reason to specifically attach correlation matrices when all the data files are there already.

Quote:Methodologists are adamant about the fact that PCA and FA are quite different animals. But I'm not going to insist on this.

I can insert a note saying that they are treated as the same even tho some people think they should not be so. Sounds good?


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[ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-20, 13:17:51
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-20, 16:55:01
Reply to Duxide - by Emil - 2014-Jul-20, 17:27:26
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-20, 18:33:29
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-21, 01:00:07
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-21, 10:38:03
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-21, 18:12:13
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-21, 18:36:51
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-22, 00:07:40
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-22, 09:12:52
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-22, 14:06:08
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-22, 15:53:00
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-22, 15:55:32
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-22, 16:02:43
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-22, 16:12:58
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-22, 18:08:44
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-22, 18:13:10
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-22, 19:02:49
Another draft - by Emil - 2014-Jul-23, 22:38:30
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Jul-23, 22:54:08
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Meng Hu - 2014-Jul-25, 22:28:31
Response to Meng Hu - by Emil - 2014-Jul-26, 17:14:16
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Meng Hu - 2014-Jul-30, 21:07:43
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing - by Dalliard - 2014-Aug-01, 17:20:07
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-01, 23:32:03
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Jul-28, 16:34:59
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing - by Dalliard - 2014-Jul-28, 19:16:48
Reply to Dalliard - by Emil - 2014-Jul-29, 01:24:01
R file - by Emil - 2014-Jul-29, 01:25:14
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing - by Dalliard - 2014-Jul-30, 19:35:22
Reply to Dailiard #2 - by Emil - 2014-Aug-03, 15:51:45
Post title limits - by Emil - 2014-Jul-30, 21:20:01
Quick note about nfactors - by Emil - 2014-Jul-31, 20:25:10
Correlated factors - by Emil - 2014-Aug-01, 18:37:50
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-03, 18:52:45
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-06, 01:45:44
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Dalliard - 2014-Aug-06, 22:50:06
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-07, 00:57:56
Reversing - by Emil - 2014-Aug-09, 17:17:57
New draft - by Emil - 2014-Aug-09, 19:21:48
Fix to the intercorrelation error - by Emil - 2014-Aug-11, 06:50:19
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Aug-11, 09:45:02
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-11, 19:12:21
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Aug-11, 20:27:02
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-12, 03:23:36
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-12, 04:04:33
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-12, 04:33:00
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-12, 05:07:11
Promax - by Emil - 2014-Aug-12, 05:52:53
Schmid Leiman and manually 3 stratum - by Emil - 2014-Aug-13, 07:02:24
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Dalliard - 2014-Aug-16, 20:13:36
New draft, 17th aug. - by Emil - 2014-Aug-17, 23:06:06
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Duxide - 2014-Aug-19, 19:27:20
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-26, 03:20:37
Response to MH, #54 - by Emil - 2014-Aug-26, 04:33:22
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-26, 22:38:19
Reply to MH #56 - by Emil - 2014-Aug-27, 01:06:14
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-27, 01:44:34
New version - by Emil - 2014-Aug-27, 19:02:10
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Meng Hu - 2014-Aug-27, 19:58:29
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Aug-27, 20:20:23
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor - by Dalliard - 2014-Aug-29, 16:57:41
Reply to Dalliard, #62 - by Emil - 2014-Aug-30, 18:47:10
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Chuck - 2014-Sep-03, 05:04:42
Reply to Chuck - by Emil - 2014-Sep-03, 12:49:10
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Chuck - 2014-Sep-03, 19:45:50
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Sep-05, 00:10:45
Candidate release - by Emil - 2014-Sep-08, 17:19:42
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Chuck - 2014-Sep-08, 19:25:34
Copyright - by Emil - 2014-Sep-08, 21:31:06
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Sep-08, 21:37:56
RE: [ODP] The international general socioeconomic factor: Factor analyzing international - by Emil - 2014-Sep-10, 22:33:12
 
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