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[ODP] Educational attainment, income, use of social benefits, crime rate and the gene

#31
(2014-May-01, 06:39:37)Emil Wrote: We were not using T-tests though.


Emil,

Could you add a paragraph to the discussion in which you note the issues -- concerning correlation, causation, and national rates of Islamic belief -- that Peter has raised? Note that we are unable to tests competing causal hypotheses at this time.
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#32
I identified the models that seem to be associated with non-normal residuals.

IQ
IQ+HEIGHT
IQ+GDP+HEIGHT

If you do exactly using your data :

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=IQ GDP ln_GDP Islam Height g_se_pc1
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/HISTOGRAM NORMAL
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

You see that Islam is not normal. (GDP is not normal either, but ln_GDP seems better). And yet it's not what causing the non-normality in distribution of the residuals. Given the above list, it seems to be IQ, but that one is normally distributed.

I don't think it's too dangerous for your regressions, so I would like to approve the publication. (as I say, i believe it's preferable to talk a little bit about the distribution of the variables and the regression residuals)
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#33
(2014-Apr-29, 19:28:45)Peter Frost Wrote: We seem to be talking past each other. I'm not challenging your correlation. I'm saying it's an artefact of factors that are tangentially related to Islam. To be brief, Islamic polities have been less effective at monopolizing the use of violence than polities in Europe and East Asia.


I made some edits and will have to look over them tomorrow. Regarding your points, in the conclusion I added:

"One of our findings was that national rates of belief in Islam robustly predicted poor migrant socioeconomic outcomes. One interpretation of this association is simply that Islamic belief is directly causally related to poorer outcomes. A reviewer suggested, as an alternative, that the Islamic national rates might covary with unobserved macro-regional characteristics, such as a historic lack of state control and a history of pastoralism; these macro-regional characteristics could have selected for, through cultural or gene-cultural co-evolution, traits which underlie the tendency for under-performance by migrants from Islamic prevalent regions of origin. We were unable to test this and other interesting hypotheses and so remain agnostic as to the cause of the associations."

Are you OK with this addition? We are not in a position to test your hypotheses. If we can find the right variables we can test them, but we should start on the global level first, anyways.


Attached Files
.pdf   educationalattainmentetcDenmark5.pdf (Size: 768.2 KB / Downloads: 517)
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#34
I would replace the second sentence with:

A reviewer suggested another explanation. In most Muslim societies, the state has less effectively monopolized the use of violence, with the result that every adult male is expected to use violence as a legitimate way to resolve personal disputes and to defend "honor" or "face." Muslim immigrants thus tend to be more willing to commit violent acts that are criminalized in Western societies, particularly if these acts are targeted against non-kin.
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#35
(2014-May-09, 18:23:48)Peter Frost Wrote: I would replace the second sentence with:


The section now reads:

Quote:One of our findings was that national rates of belief in Islam robustly predicted poor migrant socioeconomic outcomes. One interpretation of this association is simply that Islamic belief is directly causally related to poorer outcomes. This need not be the case, or course. Regarding crime, for example, a reviewer suggested another explanation. In most Muslim societies, the state has less effectively monopolized the use of violence, with the result that every adult male is expected to use violence as a legitimate way to resolve personal disputes and to defend "honor" or "face." Muslim immigrants thus tend to be more willing to commit violent acts that are criminalized in Western societies, particularly if these acts are targeted against non-kin. We were unable to test this and other interesting hypotheses and so remain agnostic as to the cause of the associations.

Ok, do we have your approval?


Attached Files
.pdf   educationalattainmentetcDenmark5.pdf (Size: 768.36 KB / Downloads: 511)
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#36
Yes, I recommend approval.
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#37
(2014-May-10, 05:14:39)Peter Frost Wrote: Yes, I recommend approval.


I've just made Peter a reviewer also for ODP, as he was officially only reviewer for OBG.
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#38
Since "Islam" here is the most important and controversial variable, I think it should be analyzed in detail. A) Please clarify how Islam is measured. B) Does it follow a normal/gaussian distribution at the aggregate level? Perhaps a histogram showing the distribution of this variable in your 71 countries sample would be useful. This would give us an idea of how the data are scattered throughout the sample and also indicate which regression method fits best your dataset.
Overall it's a good paper and I recommend publication after these 2 points are addressed.
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#39
(2014-May-10, 19:24:49)Duxide Wrote: Since "Islam" here is the most important and controversial variable, I think it should be analyzed in detail. A) Please clarify how Islam is measured. B) Does it follow a normal/gaussian distribution at the aggregate level? Perhaps a histogram showing the distribution of this variable in your 71 countries sample would be useful. This would give us an idea of how the data are scattered throughout the sample and also indicate which regression method fits best your dataset. Overall it's a good paper and I recommend publication after these 2 points are addressed.


We already have three approvals: EA, MH, and PF. I'm fine with Emil making additional changes, though -- or I can. The Islam rates are percents and they are not close to being normally distributed. But for regression, you don't need this. (http://stats.stackexchange.com/questions...t-y-is-not .) You need more or less normally distributed errors. Pic1 shows the histogram for Islam rates; pic2, the PPlot for the residuals (tolerable); and pic3, the histogram for residuals.

Emil, would you care to add a note? Otherwise, publish this and let's move on.


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#40
True the independent variables do not need to be normally distributed. However, I'd include the Islam histogram in the paper, as it's useful to know what is the distribution of this variable and how it's expressed (frequency).Everything else is fine, so publish.
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