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[ODP] Crime among Dutch immigrant groups

#21
"Also can you check the citations to make sure that they are consistent e.g., always before a punctuation mark with a space preceding them."

The citations are consistent. If they occur at the end of a sentence, they are always after the dot, unless they are in a dot-less environment (in a list). There is no dot in they occur in a sentence.
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#22
(2015-Mar-18, 05:41:29)Emil Wrote: "Also can you check the citations to make sure that they are consistent e.g., always before a punctuation mark with a space preceding them."

The citations are consistent. If they occur at the end of a sentence, they are always after the dot, unless they are in a dot-less environment (in a list). There is no dot in they occur in a sentence.


Change "it's" to "its", table 2.

4.1: Since they're intercorrelated, why don't you factor analyze those 4 variables? Then you can see if the resulting factor has a stronger correlation to IQ, Age Heaping, Islam, Int.S.Factor and you can perhaps run MCV on it too.
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#23
I have completely reworked the paper. It may require some language editing.

New stuff includes weighted analysis, factor analysis (per Piffer's request), and some more stuff from the report.

https://osf.io/e5rxs/

I will add another section re. predictors x crime when controlling for income.
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#24
A new version with the additional section where income is controlled for has been added.

The paper will still need some language editing: https://osf.io/e5rxs/
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#25
I have asked Brian Boutwell to be an external reviewer for this paper. However he has some medical problems. Instead he suggested Michael G. Vaughn (Saint Louis U) and Christopher Salas-Wright (University of Texas) instead. I have asked them if they want to review as well. Hopefully, one of them will review.

Davide Piffer has promised to review it as well. This means that one more reviewer is called for.
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#26
(2015-Aug-15, 00:04:58)Emil Wrote: A new version with the additional section where income is controlled for has been added.

The paper will still need some language editing: https://osf.io/e5rxs/


I approve publication.
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#27
I asked three more biosocial criminologists -- Eric Connolly, Joe Nedelec, Joseph Schwartz -- to review. Two of them agreed to do so. See Twitter: https://twitter.com/KirkegaardEmil/statu...9272239104

Of course, since authors can only request one external reviewer, if both external reviewers approve, then it only counts as 1.
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#28
Emil,

I only have two minor problems with this paper:

1. On the third page you state:
"National IQ was chosen because cognitive ability is known to cause crime within populations"

Correlation doesn't mean causation. I personally believe that the relationship between the two is largely indirect, i.e., the same selection pressures that have favored cognitive ability have also favored other mental traits: greater capacity for future time orientation, higher thresholds for expression of anger, less monotony avoidance, greater guilt-proneness, greater affective empathy, etc. Pacified societies with weak kinship ties will select for a different mix of mental traits, as Gregory Clark argued in his book. These other traits probably have a greater impact on crime.

In any case, I don't think you wish to argue that increases in cognitive ability cause increases in crime. Yet that is what the above statement says. I would write something more like: "cognitive ability seems to be inversely related to crime rates."

2. On page 9, you state: "If there is any police suspect bias, it will introduce bias in the data." There is a potential for bias in both directions. I would rewrite this statement as follows:

If police target certain communities, i.e., they engage in ethnic/racial profiling, there will be bias in the data. There may also be bias in the other direction. Whether or not "no-go zones" really exist, some immigrant areas have a weaker police presence per capita. Many immigrants are also unwilling to denounce members of their community to the police, either for fear of retaliation or out of ethnic/religious solidarity. This bias would lead to underreporting of crime in such communities.

Other than the above two criticisms, I have no substantial problems with this paper. The following corrections would make the paper more readable.

Page one:
- replace "parted into groups based on their" with "classified by"
- replace "1st to 2nd generation" with "the 1st to 2nd generations"

Page two:
- replace "the data was" with "the data were"

Page three:
- replace "Within countries between individuals" with "Within countries and between individuals"
- replace "predictors is" with "predictors are"
- replace "first generation immigrants" with "first-generation immigrants" (this is a recurring error in the text)

Page four:
-replace "sample immigrants" with "sample of immigrants"
-replace "members of these" with "males of these ages"
-replace "as the request" with "at the request"
-replace "weighing" with "weighting"
-replace "some transformation of it" with "some other mathematical transformation"
- replace "despite controlling for socioeconomic variables" with "even when socioeconomic variables have been controlled"
- replace "welfare receiver" with "welfare recipient"
- replace "All of these" with "All of these reports"
- replace "immigration generation" with "immigrant generation"

Page five:
- replace "sample size for breaking" with "sample sizes to break"
- replace "isn't sufficient" with "is insufficient"
- replace "when controlling for income" with "when income has been controlled"
- replace "Another use of the data in" with "The data may also be used"
- replace "first and second generation" with "the first and second generations"
- replace "2 within generation correlations" with "2 correlations within generations"
- replace "They are shown" with " The results are shown"
- replace ".85 and .83" with "0.85 and 0.83" (this is a recurring error in the text. You should always place a zero before a fractional number)

Page six:
- replace "samples size" with "sample size"
- replace "this indicates" with "there seem to be"
- replace "Crime frequency" with "Crime rate"
- replace "first and second generation" with "the first and second generations"
- replace "Turkish immigrants is" with "Turkish immigrants are"

Page seven:
- replace "Another way to examine it" with "Another way to examine this issue"

Page eight:
- replace "prior to that" with "previously"
- replace "it is not a new phenomenon" with "this overrepresentation is not a new phenomenon"

Page nine:
- replace "causes of crime within each group is" with "causes of crime within each group are"
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#29
Thanks Peter. I will look into these matters. I am however going on a trip for the next few days, so I can't make the edits immediately.
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#30
Peter,

I have changed the IQ-crime discussion to:

Quote:National IQ was chosen because cognitive ability is known to be negatively related to crime within populations, with a correlation of about -.2. (9–11). This correlation does not disappear after controlling for socioeconomic status, but it is reduced to about .10 in a within sibling analysis, which may suggest that the crime link to crime is indirect and thru some other trait that covaries with cognitive ability in the population (e.g. self-control, stronger future orientation) but less so within sibling pairs (9). However, some of this reduction in the correlation is probably due to increased measurement error when comparing siblings (9).

---

I agree with your comments regarding justice system bias. I did not intend to say that it could only be in one direction.

I have rewritten it to:

Quote:The study relies on suspects of crime, not persons found guilty. If police target certain communities, i.e., they engage in ethnic/racial profiling, there will be bias in the data. It is unclear what the net direction of police bias would be. Members of the police are presumably mostly of Dutch origin, so if they have an outgroup bias, the immigrants most different from the Dutch would receive extra attention. On the other hand, if the police try to avoid naming immigrants as suspects to avoid political outcry, this would result in bias against their own group.
Differential police presence in areas may also cause suspects per capita to be a biased indicator of crime rates. If "no-go zones" exist, some immigrant areas have a weaker police presence per capita which could reduce the suspect rates for persons living in those areas. Many immigrants are also unwilling to denounce members of their community to the police, either for fear of retaliation or out of ethnic/religious solidarity. This bias would lead to underreporting of crime in such communities. For these reasons, would be interesting to examine self-report and verdict based data as has been done for US data (22).

-

I have made most of the language changes you suggested.

I have not made the change to add a zero before fractional numbers. This practice is unnecessary (there i no extra information by including this) and is often not done in e.g. computer science. I have however added the zeros to the one table that did not have them for consistency.

---

The paper has been updated at OSF.
https://osf.io/e5rxs/
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